Bipolar Disorder Type


TypeBipolar Types Source: Mhalancaster.org
Bipolar Types Source: mhalancaster.org


In the previous posts I mentioned that bipolar disorder always has two extreme poles , the hypomania and mania though it consists of four states namely

highs, lows, mixed states and rapid cycling. However there are three types of bipolar disorders which are bipolar I, bipolar II and cyclothymic disorder.


Bipolar Types

Bipolar Disorders Types
Bipolar Disorders Types
Source: en.wikipedia.org

Bipolar I Disorder is diagnosed when one experiences at least one manic or high episode that has affected the normal social and occupational functioning of a person. The manic episodes according to the Diagnostic Statistical Manual 5 (DSM V), must at least last for a week. The person diagnosed may or may not have a history of depression or psychotic symptoms.

Bipolar II Disorder is diagnosed when at least there is one major depressive episode lasting for at least 2 weeks and at least one hypomanic or low episode lasting for at least 4 consecutive days, according to the DSM 5.

The severity of the symptoms during energised stages of bipolar are often the markers of distinguishing the difference between bipolar I and bipolar II disorders. I have heard people say bipolar II is a milder form of bipolar I or the classic bipolar disorder. This assumption is a misconception and is incorrect. The depressive symptoms in bipolar II disorder can be as severe as the manic symptoms in bipolar I disorder.

Cyclothymic Disorder is diagnosed when there are mild hypomanic symptoms alternating with mild depressed moods for at least 2 years with no more than 2 months symptom free. The depressive episodes must not meet the criteria for major depressive episode and the energised symptoms must not meet the hypomanic or manic episode criteria. The mood symptoms in cyclothymic disorder are chronic hence similar to persistent depressive disorder (dysthemia) except that there is occurrence of hypomanic symptoms. If these mood symptoms become severe it is possible that they will meet the bipolar II criteria. (Sue, Sue, Sue, Sue 2016).

Bipolar States

Hypomania (Depressive lows) is a mild form of mania expressing increased levels of activity and goal oriented behaviour combined with elevated , expansive or irritable mood. Expansive mood is when a person feels extremely confident, self-important and acts impulsively. Elevated mood is when one has exaggerated confidence, energy and sense of well being. People with bipolar symptoms are distractible, easily irritated. They may be talkative, and may talk about different scattered topics. All the above characteristics will be out of the individual’s normal behaviour.

Mania (Manic highs)is a state when one experiences exaggerated activity and emotion which range from extreme excitement (euphoria), irritability, or hostility. The manic episode is marked with dysfunction in social and occupational areas of the individual’s life that may display psychosis. Psychosis is the condition which shows distorted view or loss of reality.

As in depression hypomania and mania involve emotional, psychological , behavioural and cognitive symptoms. I will explain more on the various symptoms in an upcoming topic BIPOLAR AND RELATED DISORDERS.

Mixed States is associated with comorbid symptoms of bipolar where full symptomatic images of mania and hypomania are seen either intermixed or alternating within a few days or when depressive episodes occur predominating over manic episodes. Mixed features involve three or more symptoms of hypomania/mania or depression occurring during an episode from the opposite poles. This can be either be experienced in bipolar I or bipolar II. I will also talk more on comorbidity in the topic BIPOLAR AND RELATED DISORDERS.

Bipolar Mood
Bipolar Mood
Source: vitamindwiki.com

Rapid Cycling is when a person with bipolar has four episodes per year in any combination of mania , hypomania, mixed and depressive episodes. A switch to opposite poles or to a remission of at least two months may occur. This pattern is common in those who develop bipolar symptoms in their early stages in life. Other comorbid conditions such as anxiety , substance use disorders, attention deficit /hyperactivity may be experienced. More on this will be discussed in BIPOLAR AND RELATED DISORDERS. Rapid cycling is triggered by factors such as sleep deprivation and taking of antidepressants.

I hope this will clarify a bit on what bipolar disorders are in a nutshell. I will be posting more articles on bipolar and any related topics this week as we celebrate Mental Health Awareness week and also looking forward to celebrating Bipolar Awareness Day which will be our launching day for our Bipolar Zebra Campaign by the ASAC Trust Team.





Bipolar Awareness Days:

30th March World Bipolar Day

26th May Bipolar Awareness Day


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Bipolar Awareness


Most people have probably come across the word bipolar but were not quite sure what it is. Well bipolar disorder is a disorder that involves episodes of mood swings that vary from depressive lows (hypomania) to manic highs (mania). There are always two extreme poles of the disorder as shown in the diagram below, though it consists of four states namely highs, lows, mixed states and rapid cycling which will be described in future posts. It is considered a mood disorder because there are several changes in the mood and behaviour of the person who suffers from bipolar.

Although we celebrated World Bipolar Day on 30th of March, each day is a continuous awareness of the challenges faced, overcame, and some still being battled by all who are affected with bipolar disorders. Due to the nature of mood polarity experienced by suffers, I have chosen the zebra as a symbol to celebrate the beauty of all those affected directly and indirectly with bipolar disorders.

Bipolar disorders are a group a group of disorders that involve episodes of mood swings that vary from depressive lows to manic highs; the highs can range from a lower hypomania  to  more severe mania. I had an associate who had such a brilliant mind and had fascinating views about life. His creativity was so more than impressive and he had the most unique choice of the types of music he listened to. He always seemed to be so elated but then on other days he would struggle to even get out of bed. His moods were a roller coaster. He was later on diagnosed by a doctor that he had bipolar; after discovering through a lifestyle self-help questionnaire that he answered YES to MOST questions.

Some of the question went like this:
Has there ever been a time when you were not feeling as your usual self?
1. You felt overexcited that people thought you were not your normal self?
2. You spoke faster than your normal self or were more talkative than usual?
3. You had too much energy than normal?
4. You lacked concentration?
5. You took unusual risks in behaviour?
6. You were overspending?
7. You had trouble sleeping?
8. You were over confident than usual?
9. You were very irritable and got into argument and fights with people?
10. You had too many rushing thoughts?
11. You had difficulty in working, relating to family or friends, or had legal troubles?

If you feel like this sometimes it would help to check with your doctor if you possibly do not have manic-depression illness or a bipolar disorder?
There is nothing to be ashamed of if you are diagnosed with bipolar disorder. There are several celebrities who have suffered from the same ailment and are getting helped. Some of the famous people are Catherine Zeta-Jones, Mel Gibson, Mike Tyson, Sinead O’Connor to mention a few.

Just remember

If you have been diagnosed with bipolar?
Here are some tips to help you cope
• Get enough SLEEP
• Get enough EXERCISE
• Get SUPPORT from family and friends
• Avoid ALCOHOL AND DRUG abuse
• Avoid STRESS

Bipolar Awareness Days:
30th March World Bipolar Day
26th May Bipolar Awareness Day


Helping children cope with stress during the 2019-nCoV outbreak

Most countries are under some sort of lock down or physical distancing guidelines. 

During these times our children are very vulnerable. As such WHO has published an infographic guideline to help us and our children cope.

You can download it from the WHO page or here as a PDF to share.

How are we dealing mentally with the COVID-19 pandemic?

With lock downs across the world looking after both our physical and mental health is very important.

If you are able to work from home there are few things to be cognisant of.

Take breaks, have something to drink, take a walk inside or outside, listen to some music. Your brain uses 20% of all the energy in your body, more than any other organ so make sure you feed it and give it time to rest. Stand up and stretch your legs every 30mins and have a 10min break every hour or so. Try to walk during meetings if possible We are all under a lot more stress than normal; only being able to work from home, fear of getting sick, loved ones actually sick, running out of toilet paper, etc. Whatever is causing you stress will make you use up more energy and will impact your mental health. Also, remember that poor mental health lowers your immune system and increases your risk of getting an infection. So do stuff you enjoy, socialise virtually with friends and loved ones, and talk if you feel low.

Finally, despite the restrictions on life, you still have a lot of control. You can still call friends and loved ones, go outside and be in the sun (just 1.5m away from others!), watch Netflix or Disney+ (The Mandalorian is great!), write your memoirs, and much more. Don’t feel trapped or restricted. Stay safe everyone, and I look forward to seeing you all in person again soon.

Welcome to ASAC

Zimbabwe is a developing country situated in the south central part of Africa with an estimated population of 14 million and an estimated 1.3 million Zimbabweans suffer from some form of mental disorder. Statistics shows that there are 91 390 mentally ill patients with 7 763 new mentally ill patients being recorded in 2014 alone.According to research 1 in 4 people worldwide will develop one or more mental disorder in their lifetime.

 Do you feel not in control, overwhelmed, stressed, anxious? Or have you been diagnosed with a mental health condition?

Problems that may be faced by people with mental health problems include:

  • Lack of family and community support
  • Stigma and discrimination
  • Social isolation
  • Lack of effective and rehabilitation facilities
  • Alcohol and drug or substance abuse
  • Antisocial behaviour
  • Higher risk of unemployment
  • Debts
  • Risk of self-harm and suicide
  • Malnutrition
  • Lack of self esteem
  • Substance induced psychosis

If you feel any of the above or have experienced it then you may need help with your mental health.

What does ASAC offer:

  • Telephonic counselling in safe and confidential environment
  • Referrals to other effective services for long term interventions
  • Training and education for psychological interventions
  • Suicide risk assessment
  • Public awareness programmes
  • Support groups for people directly and indirectly affected with mental health problems


Mental health problems can be controlled. Assist individuals to get help early .Early identification of the problem is important.

 Contact us